Lambs that have not received sufficient amounts of colostrum are most vulnerable to the disease. These lambs are infected during the first hours of life when they ingest large numbers of Escherichia coli E. The bacteria pass from the abomasum into the intestines. In the intestines, the bacteria multiply rapidly, and only when they die do they release endotoxin. A small quantity of endotoxin does not cause a problem, but if large quantities are produced, movement of the gut is depressed Eales et al.
If the amount of endotoxins produced exceeds the capacity of the liver to destroy it, endotoxaemia occurs, producing the clinical signs of watery mouth Hodgson et al.
The initial clinical signs of watery mouth are those of a dull lamb, which within hours shows the characteristic excess salivation. The lamb will become progressively more dull, refuse to feed, collapse and salivate more profusely. The affected lamb will die within hours. Watery mouth is most common in intensively farmed flocks either indoor flocks or high stocking rates at pasture Henderson, Doubles or triplets from lean primiparous ewes are at greatest risk, as this is related to poor early colostrum intake Eales et al.
Lambs are unlikely to become infected with watery mouth disease if they ingest plenty of colostrum during the first 6 hours of life and if they are prevented from ingesting significant numbers of bacteria. Colostrum production is influenced by ewe nutrition. Farmers should aim for healthy ewes in good condition prior to lambing, paying particular attention to those carrying multiples or those in poorer condition Eales et al. Close attention at lambing time should be given to lambs at risk. These lambs may have to be supplemented with colostrum. It can be useful to store colostrum from ewes having singles and producing plenty.
For more information on sheep nutrition, please click here. Some management measures can be taken to prevent the intake of large numbers of E.
Winter shearing and dagging of the ewes prior to housing may also reduce the challenge. When lambs are first born they must have a sufficient amount of colostrum to avoid watery mouth disease and other conditions such as hypothermia and starvation. Watery mouth disease is a combination of insufficient colostrum intake, and ingestion of bacteria from the environment. Treating Watery Mouth Treatment of watery mouth can be very successful, provided it is detected and treated early and continued until the lamb is fit.
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The aims of treatment are:. Ewe management is crucial in preventing watery mouth. A healthy ewe should lamb and mother well and produce enough colostrum for her offspring whereas undernourished ewes can often exhibit poor maternal care and produce less colostrum and milk. This prevents starvation, relieves dehydration and stimulates gut movement — Do not feed colostrum or milk as they will be unable to digest the food. O nce body temperature is returned to normal 39 degrees Celsius and abdominal distension is reduced, then normal feeding can resume.
This will also help evacuate bacteria and endotoxins.
The use of parenteral antibiotics is sometimes advised, however farmers should be aware that this is likely to increase circulating endotoxins initially as they are released from dead bacteria. Childs, personal communication.
Once a number of cases of watery mouth have occurred in an indoor lambing flock, then at-risk lambs can be given an oral antibiotic preparation of spectinomycin at birth. The multitude of the children and of the women also, being of too weak capacities to be persuaded by reason, blunted the courage of the men themselves. For they ran all of them to him, and begged of him: the women begged for their infants, and the men for the women, that he would not overlook them, but would procure some way or other for their deliverance.
He therefore betook himself to prayer to God, that he would change the water from its present badness, and make it fit for drinking. And when God had granted him that favour, he took the top of a stick that lay down at his feet, and divided it in the middle, and made the section length ways.
He then let it down into the well, and persuaded the Hebrews that God had hearkened to his prayers, and had promised to render the water such as they desired it to be; in case they would be subservient to him in what he should injoin them to do; and this not after a remiss or negligent manner. And when they asked, what they were to do in order to have the water changed for the better?
So they laboured at it till the water was so agitated and purged as to be fit to drink. And now removing from thence, they came to Elim : which place looked well at a distance: for there was a grove of palm-trees: but when they came near it, it appeared to be a bad place.
For the palm-trees were no more than seventy; and they were ill grown, and creeping trees, by the want of water: for the countrey about was all parched; and no moisture sufficient to water them, and make them hopeful and useful, was derived to them from the fountains; which were in number twelve: they were rather a few moist places, than springs: which not breaking out of the ground, nor running over, could not sufficiently water the trees.
And when they dug into the sand, they met with no water: and if they took a few drops of it into their hands, they found it to be useless, on account of its mud. The trees also were too weak to bear fruit, for want of being sufficiently cherished and enlivened by the water.
Paradise Lost: Book 9
So they laid the blame on their conductor, and made heavy complaints against him; and said, that this their miserable state, and the experience they had of adversity, were owing to him: for that they had then journeyed an intire thirty days, and had spent all the provisions they had brought with them: and, meeting with no relief, they were in a very desponding condition.
And by fixing their attention upon nothing but their present misfortunes, they were hindred from remembring what deliverances they had received from God, and those by the virtue and wisdom of Moses also; so they were very angry at their conductor, and were zealous in their attempt to stone him, as the direct occasion of their present miseries.
Seeing it is probable, that God tries their virtue, and exercises their patience by these adversities; that it may appear what fortitude they have, and what memory they retain of his former wonderful works in their favour: and whether they will not think of them upon occasion of the miseries they now feel. That as for himself, he shall not be so much concerned for his own preservation: for if he die unjustly, he shall not reckon it any affliction; but that he is concerned for them, lest, by casting stones at him, they should be thought to condemn God himself.
By this means Moses pacified the people, and restrained them from stoning him, and brought them to repent of what they were going to do. And because he thought the necessity they were under made their passion less unjustifiable, he thought he ought to apply himself to God by prayer and supplication: and going up to an eminence, he requested of God for some succour for the people, and some way of deliverance from the want they were in; because in him, and in him alone, was their hope of salvation.
And he desired that he would forgive what necessity had forced the people to do: since such was the nature of mankind, hard to please, and very complaining under adversities. Accordingly God promised he would take care of them, and afford them the succour they were desirous of.
Now when Moses had heard this from God, he came down to the multitude. But as soon as they saw him joyful at the promises he had received from God, they changed their sad countenances into gladness. So he placed himself in the midst of them, and told them, he came to bring them from God a deliverance out of their present distresses.
Upon which Moses returned thanks to God for affording them his assistance so suddenly, and sooner than he had promised them. For as Moses was lifting up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down; and Moses, when he found it stick to his hands, supposed this was also come for food from God to them: he tasted it; and perceiving that the people knew not what it was, and thought it snowed; and that it was what usually fell at that time of the year, he informed them, that this dew did not fall from heaven after the manner they imagined; but came for their preservation and sustenance.
So he tasted it, and gave them some of it; that they might be satisfied about what he told them. They also imitated their conductor; and were pleased with the food; for it was like honey in sweetness, and pleasant taste; but like in its body to bdellium, one of the sweet spices: but in bigness equal to coriander seed.
And very earnest they were in gathering it. But they were enjoined to gather it equally, 3 the measure of an homer for every one, every day: because this food should not come in too small a quantity, lest the weaker might not be able to get their share, by reason of the overbearing of the strong in collecting it.
However, these strong men, when they had gathered more than the measure appointed for them, they had no more than others; but only tired themselves more in gathering it. For they found no more than an homer apiece: and the advantage they got by what was superfluous was none at all; it corrupting, both by the worms breeding in it, and by its bitterness. So divine and wonderful a food was this!
It also supplied the want of other sorts of food to those that fed on it. Now the Hebrews call this food manna. For the particle man in our language is the asking of a question, what is this? So the Hebrews were very joyful at what was sent them from heaven. Now they made use of this food for forty years: 1 or as long as they were in the wilderness.
As soon as they were removed thence, they came to Rephidim: being distressed to the last degree by thirst: and while in the foregoing days they had light on a few small fountains, but now found the earth entirely destitute of water, they were in an evil case: and so they again turned their anger against Moses. But he at first avoided the fury of the multitude, and then betook himself to prayer to God: beseeching him that as he had given them food, when they were in the greatest want of it, so he would give them drink: since the favour of giving them food was of no value to them, while they had nothing to drink.
And God did not long delay to give it them; but promised Moses that he would procure them a fountain, and plenty of water, from a place they did not expect any. So he commanded him to smite the rock 5 which they saw lying there, with his rod; and out of it to receive plenty of what they wanted. For he had taken care that drink should come to them without any labour or pains-taking. When Moses had received this command from God, he came to the people, who waited for him, and looked upon him. For they saw already that he was coming apace from his eminence. As soon as he was come, he told them that God would deliver them from their present distress, and had granted them an unexpected favour: and informed them that a river should run for their sakes out of the rock.
But they were amazed at that hearing: supposing they were of necessity to cut the rock in pieces, now they were distressed by their thirst, and by their journey. While Moses only smiting the rock with his rod, opened a passage, and out of it burst out water, and that in great abundance, and very clear. But they were astonished at this wonderful effect: and, as it were quenched their thirst by the very sight of it.
So they drank this pleasant, this sweet water: and such it seemed to be as might well be expected where God was the donor. They were also in admiration how Moses was honoured by God: and they made grateful returns of sacrifices to God for his providence towards them. Now that scripture which is laid up in the temple 6 informs us, how God foretold to Moses, that water should in this manner be derived out of the rock.
How the Amalekites , and the neighbouring nations, made war with the Hebrews , and were beaten; and lost a great part of their army. The name of the Hebrews began already to be every where renowned, and rumours about them ran abroad. This made the inhabitants of those countries to be in no small fear. Accordingly they sent ambassadors to one another, and exhorted one another to defend themselves, and to endeavour to destroy these men.