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  1. The 50 Shades trilogy review?
  2. Beyond Fifty Shades: The Genetics of Horse Colors?
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For additional information, see the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab This amount includes applicable customs duties, taxes, brokerage and other fees. When the receptor is blocked, there is no stimulus for the production of eumelanin as explained above , and only pheomelanin synthesis occurs. About years BP [ 1 ], a recessive mutation occurred in the ASIP locus, yielding black color throughout the entire body of the horse.

For this to happen; however, two doses homozygosity of the recessive allele are required: A a A a. It is a very common color in the Percheron breed, and valued when having white markings in some other breeds. Some breeds, such as Friesian admit only black animals. This means that bay is, in fact, hypostatic to chestnut , that is, the dominant allele in the locus Agouti A A is masked by the homocigosis of the recessive allele in the Extension locus E e E e.

Although recessive homozygous alleles at the MC1R locus encode always pheomelanic animals, each country and regions within the same country has its own designation based solely on phenotypic shade of red in the coat. Some breeds, namely the Suffolk Punch and the Haflinger admit only chestnut or sorrel animals. As for breeders of draft horses, sorrel would be applied to a chestnut horse carrying the mealy modifier.

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Once determined which pigment s is are produced by the horse and understood the relationship between all possible alleles in genes MC1R and ASIP, it is possible to understand the effects that other alleles, at other loci, yield over the three basic colors. Occur when proteins encoded by specific genes alter amount of pigment or deposition of pigment in receiver structures keratinocytes and hairs. The effect is a dilution in the intensity of the original color. Dun markings as zebra and shoulder stripes are shown in more detail. Source 1 and 2: Mr.

Jose Victor Isola. The first mutation encoding a nondun phenotype occurred about 45, years BP, that is, predating domestication of horse.

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This phenotype retains the primitive marks, though a little lighter than the wild type. The dun effect over the basic colors—no matter how many dominant alleles are present—is a dilution of body color but not of head and points color, and the primitive marks, being the dorsal stripe the more consistent and best observed one. Primitive marks vary in extent and intensity. They are called so because are displayed in breeds considered primitive, though not limited to.

It has radial orientation, hence the name cob webbing or spider webbing. It is not visible in all duns, being more visible in grullos black animal carrying the dun dilution. Shoulder stripe : A shadow or stripe of darker hairs running distally from and over the withers. It may vary in color intensity, shape, and extent. Zebra stripes, stripped legs or leg bars : Horizontal stripes appearing on the carpi and hocks, varying in number and color intensity.

These are not always seen. In grullos they are usually black or very dark colored. Dorsal stripe : This is the most common mark on the dun dilution carriers. If a horse lacks the dorsal stripe, then it does not have the dun factor. It is a dark stripe clearly distinct from the rest of the coat, extending from the poll to the dock of the tail on the dorsal line. Some horses not carrying the dun dilution may display a dorsal stripe, though this is less clear and lighter, and often subject of controversy.

Facial mask : It is the undiluted color on the head coat. It varies in size, from a small band over the bridge of the nose or forehead to an entire undiluted head coat. Guard hairs sometimes called frosting are lighter colored hairs growing on the edges of the mane and at the tail base. A good example is the Fjord breed. Despite having different characteristics, care should be taken to not confuse guard hairs with those found on the tails of roans genetic roans or not and rabicanos.

There are some primitive marks that are not observed in all horses carrying dun, or slightly observed, or observed only during the first months of life. Such marks are not characteristic nor they attest the presence of the dun factor by themselves; often they are not even present in all duns. These appear as: Dark bands perpendicular to the dorsal stripe barbs off the dorsal stripe that may extend variably toward the ribs;.

Fifty Shades Trilogy - Christian and Ana - A Thousand Years

Small dark marks roughly the size of a pea called mottling , on the stifle, legs, shoulders, and arms;. Dark bars on the ears , occurring below a dark tip of the ears upper third of the ear, caudal view , which are observed in most duns;.

Fifty Shades of Silver Hair and Socks by Phil Torcivia

Bider marks —a dark band or shadowing varying in shape and extent on the shoulder, identified so far only in some horses from Mongolia [ 18 ]. The nomenclature question when it comes to dun dilution colors, is somewhat complex due to different countries and breed registries where it is permitted. In Latin America countries these animals are called gateados preceded or succeeded by a term that identifies the underlying coat.

In North America they are called linebacked duns , a clear reference to the typical dorsal stripe of the dun dilution. A wide range of terms is assigned to the various nuances caused by dun on basic coats and other dilutions. Interestingly, often two or more nuances, despite having different names, actually have the same genetic signature.

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Until a few years ago, the gene responsible for the phenotype dun was unknown; it was known only about its autosomal mode of inheritance and complete dominance. Like all carriers of this dilution, the primitive markings are present. This is one of the most susceptible to seasonal variations phenotypes: During winter months, when the coat is denser with longer hairs, the body presents an almost uniform and lighter cream color compared to summer months when the color can come to a grayish color similar to a mouse color.

Obviously, cream and gray tones vary individually according to other genes in action, as well as the factors already mentioned, such as nutritional status and age. Thus, the lighter shades of this variant in North America are designated silvery grullo , olive dun , or slate grullo ; the darker shades are called wolf dun. Thus we have the golden duns and silvery duns dun on light bay , zebra dun dun on medium bay , dark dun dun on dark bay , and coyote dun dun on sooty bay ; dusty dun dun on lighter shades of seal brown , shaded mealy grullo dun on intermediate shades of seal brown —note that mealy and grullo here are solely phenotypic definitions, that hold no genetic match with the real genetic mealy and grullo , shaded wolf dun dun on darker shades or sooty variant of seal brown.

Sooty is the presence of very dark hairs spread over the coat, especially on the dorsal region. In North America, the dun on lighter chestnuts and sorrels is called apricot dun or sooty apricot dun for sooty variant of sorrel , while dun on tostado chestnut ranges from apricot dun or claybank dun lighter shades to red dun for intermediary and sooty shades of chestnut.

The effect over the coat color depends on the allelic zygosity—what is called incomplete dominance. It means that homozygosity or heterozygosity of the dominant allele affect differently the phenotype. In the case of cream dilution, it happens that homozygosity of the dominant allele affects the phenotype more aggressively than heterozygosity. Obviously, the cream dilution had not yet been postulated at that time.