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We compared the correlations between the SIMP-G and the external criteria with the correlations between multi-item measures of personality and the same external criteria. The correlations did not differ significantly in their strength in over half of the cases i. Thus, for most criterion correlations we did not find a significant difference between the application of the SIMP-G and the other Big Five measures using substantially more items. When looking descriptively at the absolute numerical correlation values the multi-item measures showed higher correlations with the criteria than the SIMP-G in the majority of cases i.

The SIMP-G showed higher correlations in 26 out of 95 cases and exactly the same value as the multi-item measure in 1 case out of This analysis, however, does not take negligible differences in the value of the correlations into account. In the second and third group, the coefficients of the SIMP-G and the multi-item measure did not fall into the same effect size interval: In the second group, the coefficient for the multi-item measure was larger than for the SIMP-G i.

Summarizing, in the majority of cases the correlation between the external criterion and the SIMP-G did not significantly differ from the correlation between the same external criterion and the multi-item measure of personality.

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When comparing the correlations on basis of established effect size intervals most correlations between the external criterion and the SIMP-G were either equal or even larger i. Thus, the SIMP-G overall showed a pattern of external correlations in line with existing findings and similar to those of the longer measures used in our surveys. Based on Cohen almost half of these proportions i. When examining the additional variance explained by the multi-item personality measures in the second step, results indicated that in more than half of the cases i.

Hierarchical regression: Block 1 includes the five SIMP-G items, Block 2 additionally adds another personality measure as indicated in the brackets behind the criterion. Across all criterion and instrument constellations both instruments i. Thus, adding at least twice as many items the shortest additional Big Five instruments has 10 items resulted on average in a duplication of the explained variance.

Thus, doubling the number of items resulted in less than doubling the variance explained. Thus, the longer instruments we used provided approximately the same incremental variance as our single-item measure was able to provide in the first step. The SIMP-G, therefore, seems to provide a good reference baseline for a general analysis of the predictive value of the Big Five personality dimensions. Overall, these findings are totally consistent with existing evidence, thus further corroborating the valid applicability of the SIMP-G. It was our aim to develop and validate the German version of the SIMP by Woods and Hampson and to provide first guidelines for the interpretation of the various single-item reliability approaches for the field of personality research.

The convergent validity, too, was good for the SIMP-G with medium to strong convergent correlations with a broad range of alternative personality measures and small discriminant correlations. The external correlations of the SIMP-G with various outcome variables were mainly in line with existing evidence—even though they tended to be smaller in magnitude—thus confirming its validity in terms of external criteria.

Future research should extend our preliminary evidence by examining associations between the SIMP-G factors and additional criteria, especially in fields were short instruments are particularly needed. Given these encouraging findings it seems promising to validate additional versions of the SIMP in other common languages e. Thus, future research might examine the psychometric properties of the SIMP-G from an other-person perspective. Irrespective of the perspective, the SIMP-G is not designed to assess a differentiated personality profile or to examine specific personality facets; only multi-item measures are appropriate for these purposes.

The SIMP-G provides researchers from various research areas with an economic first indicator of personality, for example, to statistically control for personality differences. Furthermore personality factors—even though not affecting the dependent variable—might be correlated with the predictor variable, thus acting as a suppressor variable. This research also provides the first meta-analytic guidelines for the interpretation of single-item reliabilities in the context of personality assessment.

Such guidelines are important as single items will most likely be less reliable than multiple-item measures, and can, thus, not be compared directly with multiple-item measures with regard to their reliability. Moreover, we found the consistency-based reliability of single items to depend on the reliability of the multiple-item reference measure used to estimate the single-item reliability i. Therefore, meta-analytic guidelines comprising single-item reliability estimates resulting from reference measures of different length provide researchers with a tool to better interpret the single-item reliabilities of their personality measures.

Several conclusions can be drawn from our meta-analytic review: First, it might be possible to use established evaluation rules of retest-reliabilities to evaluate the stability-based single-item reliability, as we could show that these estimates have on average a single-item reliability of. Moreover, concerning retest reliabilities, the two different approaches i. Second, with an average value of. Thus, in line with previous research on single-item reliabilities of job satisfaction Wanous et al.

Third, our analysis is the first to include all three indicators of consistency-based single-item reliability suggested to date, that is, the correction for attenuation formula r SI , the communalities h 2 , and the squared main factor loadings a 2. Our findings suggest that on aggregated levels these indicators resulted in similar reliability estimates with the communality h 2 tending to be an upper bound of single-item reliability estimates. Nevertheless, their sometimes pronounced differences e. Fourth, across different single-item measures of personality, consistency-based single-item reliabilities were systematically lower than test—retest reliability coefficients, thus indicating that representatives of both reliability concepts should be considered when evaluating an instrument.

Finally, the meta-analytic findings indicate that some personality dimensions e. This result points to the possibility that the latter dimensions might either be perceived more heterogeneously or that these dimensions are more normatively evaluative, that is, people stick to social norms and do not dare answer to be disagreeable, which would lead to less reliable answers than for less evaluative dimensions.

Thus, it seems to be useful to not only look at overall guidelines but also at guidelines for each personality dimension separately.

The SIMP-G provides researchers from various research areas with an efficient first indicator of personality. Translating and validating the original English measure into German is a first step to provide international researchers all over the globe with a psychometrically sound and short personality instrument.


Using this instrument will allow future research to compare the results gained from it more easily even across cultures. Furthermore this research provides some first meta-analytic guidelines on single-item reliability for personality measures. The authors would like to thank Aaron L. Maner, Jason D. Shaw, Maria Strobel, Stephen A. Woods, and Matthias Ziegler for their insightful comments on earlier versions of this article. Bitte umkreisen Sie jeweils eine Markierungslinie auf der Skala, je nachdem wie sehr jede der beiden Beschreibungen eines Paars Ihrer Meinung nach auf Sie generell zutrifft.

Beschreibung 1 Beschreibung 2. Wie sehr treffen die folgenden Aussagen auf Sie zu? Bitte denken Sie dabei nicht an spezifische Situationen, sondern ganz allgemein , wie sehr die Aussagen Sie selbst in den meisten Bereichen und Situationen in Ihrem Leben beschreiben. Allgemein wirke ich tendenziell eher wie eine Person, die.

An interesting alternative to this facet-aggregating approach might be the search for a specific facet so strongly correlated with the overall dimension that it would be justified to use this single facet as an indicator of the overall dimension. To our knowledge, such facets have not been proposed so far. Throughout the article squared brackets contain the range of the respective statistics e. The number is not a multiple of five for the five dimensions as Denissen et al.

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Thus we have three additional openness values for the stability-based and two additional values for the consistency-based correction for attenuation approach and factor loadings methods. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Email: ed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

QHHT in German - Isabeau Wagner (Teil 2)

Abstract Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. Keywords: single-item measures of personality, SIMP, test reliability, test validity, Big Five personality model, meta-analysis, foreign language translation.

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Single-Item Personality Measures Looking at single-item personality measures i. Table 1. Open in a separate window. Table 2. Consistency-Based Single-Item Reliability Indicators Wanous and Hudy suggested two different approaches to derive a consistency-based reliability estimate of single-item measures: The first is based on the correction for attenuation formula, using the reliability of a reference measure of the same trait and the empirical as well as assumed underlying construct correlation between these measures.

Table 3. Meta-Analysis of Single-Item Reliabilities. Mean values over all three single-item reliability estimation approaches. Mean over all five personality dimensions. Means are weighted by using the SAS alpha reliability meta-analysis program by Bonett There were no or, in few cases, only minor on the second decimal place differences between the weighted and unweighted means.

Table 4. Table 5. Predictive Validity: Regression Analyses. Discussion It was our aim to develop and validate the German version of the SIMP by Woods and Hampson and to provide first guidelines for the interpretation of the various single-item reliability approaches for the field of personality research. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Aaron L. Ebooks and Manuals

Dies kann z. Beschreibung 1 Beschreibung 2 Wie sehr treffen die folgenden Aussagen auf Sie zu? Empfindsam und leicht aufzuregen ist, aber auch angespannt sein kann. Entspannt ist und wenig emotional, die selten irritiert, durcheinander oder traurig ist. Notes 1. References Alwin D. Margins of error: A study of reliability in survey measurement. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. European Journal of Psychological Assessment , 26 , Barrick M. The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance.

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A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology , 44 , Bekk M. The influence of perceived personality characteristics on positive attitude towards and suitability of a celebrity as a marketing campaign endorser.

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Open Psychology Journal , 3 , Bergkvist L. The predictive validity of multiple-item versus single-item measures of the same constructs. Journal of Marketing Research , 44 , Bernard L. Ask once, may tell: Comparative validity of single and multiple item measurement of the Big-Five personality factors.